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Application of Force Statistics


This analysis will look at how and where force has been utilized as it relates to interactions with subjects by different Police Division units across the County. In this analysis the response to resistance, or use of force, was attributed to the unit that initiated the interaction or had the primary interaction that resulted in the application of force to better identify any trends within a particular unit.


Per Henrico Police policy, officers are directed to use only the force necessary to achieve the lawful objectives of the Division. An officer’s response to resistance should be objectively reasonable and he or she should consider the totality of the facts and circumstances of each incident, to include the severity of the crime, whether the suspect is posing an immediate threat or danger to himself or others, and whether the suspect is resisting arrest or attempting to evade.

Henrico Police develops and implements policies to govern the use of less-lethal weapons and ballistic shields use of force, the use of lethal force, and response to resistance, or, application of force. Every year Henrico Police conducts an analysis of use of force incidents, policies and reporting procedures.

Reporting Procedures

The review and analysis of all response to resistance/use of force reports falls under the purview of the Professional Standards Section. Documentation associated with each response to resistance instance are collected and forwarded to the Commander, Quality Assurance for review. The Commander, Quality Assurance reviews submitted reports, memorandums, photographs and body worn video footage for entry into its data tracking system. If the submitted incident complies with the Division’s policies and procedures, the packet is forwarded to the Commanding Officer, Professional Standards for review. If compliance with policy and procedures is questioned, the incident is forwarded to the Commander, Internal Affairs, after being entered into its data tracking system. Once the matter is examined by the Commander, Internal Affairs, it is forwarded to the Commanding Officer, Professional Standards for review. The Commanding Officer, Professional Standards forwards all completed packets to the affected member’s Deputy Chief for review. Once the Deputy Chief completes a review of the incident, it is sent back to the Commanding Officer, Professional Standards for retention as set forth by the Library of Virginia.

2023 Statistics

There were twenty-six (26) less responses to resistance during 2023 than the previous year, a 27.96% decrease, despite responding to 9,200 more service calls. The prior three-year average is 104 responses to resistance. There was a 35.6% reduction in responses from this average during 2023.

The Henrico County Police Division experienced a repeated and significant decrease in the number of response to resistance incidents in 2023 from the prior two years. Officers’ responses to resistance were less than half of the 2021 quantity.

Incident Occurrence

During calendar year 2023, Henrico County Police Division officers responded to 140,823 calls for service and conducted 136,678 markouts.  Officers reported only sixty-seven (67) response to resistance incidents from the combined 277,501 calls for service and markouts, for an approximately 0.0241% response rate.  This percentage is consistent with the statistical analysis of recent calendar years.  These incidents involved seventy (70) separate subjects, eighty-eight (88) officers, and ninety-three (93) cumulative applications of force. 

Response to resistance incidents had a relatively consistent disbursement from the second through the fourth quarter, with a quarterly high in the first quarter.  January through March saw 29.85% of the responses to resistance reported.  April through June accounted for 22.39% and July through September accounted for 25.37% of incidents. The period from October through December concluded the year with 22.39% of reports.

Officers reported more interactions requiring a response to resistance during the time period of noon to 6 p.m. and midnight to 6 a.m.  There was a significant increase in resistance responses between midnight and 6 a.m. for CY23 than CY22.  The time periods between midnight to 6 a.m. and noon to 6 p.m. reported responses to resistance of 30.99% and 12.90%, respectively.

Location and Police Sections

Patrol Bureau, West Station accounted for 35.23% of response to resistance incidents, with Patrol Bureau, Central Station reporting 22.73% of incidents, and Patrol Bureau, South Station responding to 26.14% of the incidents. The response to resistance incidents by members of the School Services Unit was 4.55% of encounters.  The Special Operations Group, consisting of the Emergency Services Unit (Emergency Response Team, Canine Unit, EOD, and Civil Disturbance Team) and the Traffic Enforcement Unit, accounted for 11.36% of response incidents.  Seven Emergency Response Team members deployed tactical munitions during four incidents during calendar year 2023.  
For comparison, West Station officers responded to 47.43% (65,990) of the calls for service received, Central Station 25.25% (35,130) of the calls for service, and the remaining 27.33% (38,025) of the calls for service were assigned to the South Station.

Subject Demographics

The subjects involved in the response to resistance incidents varied in age from 14 to 63 years old, with an average age of 31.7 years old.  Officers reported that male subjects were primarily involved in response to resistance instances, accounting for 90.0%, compared to 10.0% of female subjects requiring similar responses.

Subjects who identified as Black were involved in 62.86% of the response to resistance incidents, those identified as White represented 35.71% of the involved subjects, and subjects identified as Hispanic consisted of 1.43% of the reported incidents.

Force Used & Injuries

Officers applied force as a response to resistance ninety-three (93) times during 2023.  Officers utilized reactionary force in the following percentages for response to resistance incidents:   Physical Force 50.54%; CEW (Taser) 18.28%; OC Fogger 2.15%; Vehicular Precision Immobilization Technique (PIT) 4.30%; OC Spray 9.68%; Canine 1.08%; Baton 0.00%; and Tactical Devices 7.53%.  There were no vehicle containment actions.   Six officers utilized their firearms to neutralize armed encounters in three separate incidents, for a response rate of 6.45%.  
Response to resistance applications in 2023 resulted in documented injuries to involved subjects at a rate of 71.43%, including one fatality.  Two individuals evaded apprehension, so no injury data is available.  Officers reported being injured at a rate of 19.3% during force applications.  Injuries are defined for reporting purposes as pain/soreness, bruising/swelling, abrasions/lacerations, exposure to chemical agents or CEW barbs, fractures, stabbing/gunshot/puncture wounds, or other injuries not experienced prior to the encounter.

Reasons for Resistance & Application of Force

Reasons individuals involved in these incidents provided for their resistance to the officers included being wanted (22.54%), intoxicated (14.08%), involved in a mental health crisis (19.72%), and being scared (1.41%).  Individuals provided no reason for resisting in 29.58% of the incidents and various other reasons were provided in 12.68% of incidents.  

The primary reason officers reported for the application of force during CY2023 was the subject providing active resistance, 53.64%.  Subjects being assaultive was the second most reported at 28.18%.  Officers being confronted with serious bodily-injury or a life-threatening assault occurred in 8.18% of encounters.  Passive resistance was experienced in 6.36% of encounters.  Other types of incidents requiring a response, such as multiple individuals fighting or a need for tactical deployments, were presented in 3.64% of encounters.

Contact Us


7721 E. Parham Rd.
Henrico, VA 23294

Police Non-Emergency
(804) 501-5000
General Information
(804) 501-4800

[email protected]

Mailing Address
P. O. Box 90775
Henrico, VA 23273-0775

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